Photo Gallery


Wild ginger (Asarum caudatum) is common in moist shaded sites and wet seepage areas. The roots can be eaten fresh, or dried and ground as a ginger substitute.

Skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanum) provided an important source of starch for native peoples in the wetbelt forest (after drying or roasting).

Where large cottonwoods (Populus balsamifera) grow as scattered individuals within the coniferous forest they enhance the growth of canopy lichen communities by enriched rainwater as it falls through the canopy.

Western red cedar (Thuja plica) groves can reach exceptional size in wet seepage areas of the inland rainforest.

Indian Hellebore (Veratrum viride) are wide spread in wet seepage areas in the wet Columbia Mountains. They are highly poisonous, and when dried and powdered, form the garden insecticide "hellbore".

The young shoots of Cow-Parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) were widely used as a traditional food source in BC's interior wetbelt forests.

Subalpine forests (seen here near Viking Ridge) provide critical winter habitat for Mountain Caribou.

The edible Fiddlehead or Ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris) grows prolifically in floodplain forests and wet seepage areas.

In wet ICH forests lightning can ignite individual trees, leading to the formation of small gaps within the canopy.

Much of the standing biomass in wetbelt forests consists of dead or decaying wood. Bracket fungi and conks are visible evidence of the larger decomposer communities in these forests.

Group selection / patch cut prescription in mountain caribou habitat, Bearpaw Ridge, Prince George district, 1999. 30% of the volume was removed.

Foreground: operational trial of a 30% "group retention" prescription in wetbelt ICH forests in the ICHvk2 subzone in the Lunate / Hungary Creek area, Prince George Forest District

View northwest up the northern Rocky Mountain Trench from the East Twin Creek area. Cariboo (Columbia) Mountains are visible in the background.

Past logging of toe-slope positions in the upper Fraser River Valley raises serious conservation biology concerns about the retention of canopy lichen biodiversity in antique forests.

October mists shroud subalpine spruce-fir forests on Bearpaw Ridge, ESSFwk2 subzone.

View of Red Mountain from the Driscoll Creek area, Northern Rocky Mountain Trench near Penny BC. Red Mountain is famed for high grizzly bear densities and lush subalpine habitat.

325 year-old lower slope western redcedar forest in the East Twin Creek drainage, Robson Valley district.

The foliose lichen Lobaria pulmonaria is common on branches in the lower canopy of old-growth wet-belt cedar-hemlock forests.

Actively growing lichen thalli of Alectoria sarmentosa during winter snowmelt event.

Canopy biologist at UNBC using single-rope climbing techniques to carry out lichen biodiversity studies in canopy of cedar-hemlock forest.

Old-growth interior cedar hemlock forest canopies support high lichen biodiversity.

Pendulous mats of the hair lichen Bryoria in the upper canopy of a cedar-hemlock forest.

Winter snowpack accumulation plays a major role in the ecology of wetbelt forests and provides a period of relatively easier access (on snowshoes) into "antique forest" stands.

In high-elevation wetbelt forests, light green hair lichens are often conspicuous in the lower canopy. In the upper canopy, dark brown hair lichens are often less conspicuous, but even more abundant.

Field Research Assistants assess downed logs for wildlife habitat at the Lunate and Minnow ICH study areas.

Feller-buncher cutting cedar at the Minnow harvest study area, Robson Valley Forest District.

Mountain Caribou in low elevation forest during the early winter period (photo: C. Johnson).

The Alpine Tundra Zone includes herb meadows, shrub communities, and dry windswept ridges.

The ICH Zone is dominated by the climax tree species western redcedar and western hemlock, often with minor components of hybrid white spruce and subalpine fir. Trembling aspen, paper birch, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, and western white pine are seral species in the ICH Zone.

The ESSF Zone forms extensive stands of two climax tree species, Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. At higher elevations, Engelmann spruce drops out and subalpine fir becomes increasingly clumped and stunted.

Hybrid white spruce and subalpine fir are climax species in the SBS Zone, but lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, trembling aspen, paper birch, and cottonwood are common seral species.

Red Squirrels do not hibernate, but store prodigious quantities of conifer cones for the winter.

Large hollow trees can provide den-sites for Black Bears.

Large hollow trees can provide roosting sites for bats, and nest sites for Vaux's Swifts

Avalanche track extending from ESSF to ICH in East Twin Creek valley.

Recent debris slide in high elevation ESSF forests, Rocky Mountain Trench. (photo by M. Geertsema)

Slope failures on unstable glaciolacustrine deposits triggered by 1992 Cush fire.

Buried charcoal in slope deposits in the Morkill River valley.

Luvisolic soil formed on fine-textured glaciolacustrine deposits.

View into a canopy gap from the top of an adjacent tree. Note the scattered beams of direct sunlight on branches in the more humid lower canopy.

Partial-cutting silviculture systems (group selection) in subalpine spruce-fir forest (Pinkerton Mtn.).

"Antique" forest stands show remnants of earlier generations of tree growth, such as large snags, and have an open canopy structure, with many gaps.

Organic matter concentrations in the B horizons tend to be higher under moist subalpine meadow vegetation.

The canopy lichen Lobaria retigera can be found in antique forest stands within BCs inland wet temperate rainforest and in BCs coastal rainforests. It also occurs in rainforests of New Zealand, Queensland (Australia), and Papau New Guinea.


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